Hub Bearing Technical Information

40 Shaft Road (unit 12-15) Toronto, Ont. M9W 4M2 416-249-5050/ 1-877-488-5058

Product bulletin: Bearing Gen3

Generation 2.5

Generation 3

Bearing Type Materials Heat Treatments Seal
Gen 3 Bearing quality SAE 1055 grade forged integral outboard inner race Induction hardened outboard inner race Multi-lip inboard and outboard seals composed of Buna-N elastomer and stainless/low carbon steel
  Bearing quality SAE 52100 grade forged separate inboard inner race Through hardened inboard inner race
  Bearing quality SAE 1055 grade forged flanged outer race Induction hardened outer races
Gen 2.5 Bearing quality SAE 52100 grade forged inner races Through hardened inner races Inboard and outboard cartridge seals composed of Buna-N elastomer and stainless/low carbon steel
Bearing quality SAE 1055 grade forged flanged outer races Induction hardened outer races


All hub bearings are manufactured and assembled at our own China based manufacturing facility. We perform all machining, induction heat treatment, spline broaching, grinding, super finishing, and assembly at our manufacturing facility. North American Engineering and R & D is located in our Chicago, Illinois facility.


As required bearing validation during hub bearing development


• Durability testing according to industry OE requirements where applicable, at our factory-located testing facility. When necessary we utilize qualified domestic testing facilities.

• High speed/high temperature testing, when required.

• High cornering load testing to validate hub shaft integrity and orbital forming process.

• Muddy water seal test validation according to industry OE requirements.

• Salt spray testing according to industry OE requirements.


Gen 3 advantages over Gen 2.5:

• Integrated outboard inner raceway with hub shaft versus separate inner raceway

• Results in better control of raceway geometry and reduced hub shaft rotor/wheel mounting flange runout.

• Tighter control of assembled bearing clearance (no need to account for interference fit between inner ring and hub shaft).

• Overall, results in a more accurately operating bearing with a more controlled installed preload.

• Induction hardened outboard inner raceway versus through hardened inner raceway – resulting in improved impact/shock load resistance

• Multi-lip outboard seal provides improved sealing with mounting flange – resulting in improved contamination/water exclusion and longer service life.

Major causes of pulsating brakes/Runout


Technical Bulletin – Major causes of pulsating brakes/Runout


You're driving, and you press on the brakes, only to feel that pulsating sensation. The first diagnosis that comes to mind could be a warped brake rotor. Before going any further, generally speaking, a warped brake rotor means any brake rotor that isn't perfectly flat and parallel with the plane rotation. There are many causes that can lead to a pulsating brake.

One of the most common causes of a warped brake rotor is the improper installation of the wheel. Modern brake rotors are thinner at the friction surface and overall there is less material everywhere. That fact alone makes them vulnerable to warping thanks to both heat and improper lug nut torque. Your service technician should be very well aware of this, and therefore tightens the lug nuts in the correct sequence with a torque wrench.

Take out of the equation that everything is assembled correctly, and then the most common cause of brake pulsation is from the uneven transfer of friction material from the pad to the rotor.

Now, there is a situation when you'll feel normal brake pulsation. If your vehicle is equipped with an anti-lock brake system (ABS), and you have to hit the brakes quickly, you will feel a pulsation, but that is completely normal.

Keep in mind that brakes work best when within a specific temperature range, and the friction material that makes up the brake pad is designed with those temperature ranges in mind. A thin layer of friction material from the brake pad adheres to the rotor. This bedding-in process is what makes up this initial layer. The problem arises if the brakes are bedded in when new, or if the pads are severely overheated at any point, then that friction material becomes uneven and you can then have that pulsating problem. Should your brake rotors overheat, they can develop heat checks, and unfortunately they can't be resurfaced and your only option is to have them replaced.  Maybe use a pad that is scorched in for better mating with rotor or a more robust pad and ensure proper break in period of pads & rotors.


***References:  SSGM, General Motors, Dr. Johnny’s Car Clinic


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